Y-TZP surface treatments and their effects on the bond strength to resin cement
Aim: This study evaluated the effect of surface treatments of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics on their bond strength to a resin cement. Methods: Seventy zirconia blocks (6 × 6 × 2 mm3, IPS e.max ZirCAD) were assigned into 7 groups (n=10) – as-sintered (AS), no treatment; tribochemical silica coating + silanization (TBS; Cojet-sand; ProSil); air abrasion with 45 μm alumina particles + universal primer (AAP; Monobond®Plus); fusion sputtering (FS); SiO2 nanofilm + silanization (SN; ProSil); FS+SN+silanization (FSSN; ProSil); FS+SN+Universal Primer (FSSNP; Monobond®Plus). Afterwards, a resin cement (RelyX™ ARC) was applied inside cylinders (Ø = 0.96 mm × 1 mm height) placed on the zirconia surfaces. Microshear bond strength tests (μSBS) were carried out (1 mm/min). Failure and phase transformation analysis were performed. Bond strength data (MPa) were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Mann Whitney tests. Results: TBS (27 ± 1.2) and AAP (24.7 ± 0.8) showed higher bond strengths than the other groups, followed by FSSNP (15.5 ± 4.2) and FSSN (13.3 ± 3.6). FS (3.4 ± 0.44) and SN (9.5 ± 2.7) showed the lowest values (p < 0.001). Most of the specimens exhibited an adhesive failure. Conclusion: Air-abrasion by silica-coated alumina particles followed by silanization or by alumina particles followed by universal primer resulted in the highest resin bond strength to zirconia. Fusion sputtering and silica nanofilm deposition induced low strengths. However, when these methods are applied in combination and with a primer (FSSN and FSSNP), higher bond strengths may be achieved. Low bond strengths are obtained when no zirconia treatment is performed.
2. Da Silva EM, Miragaya L, Sabrosa CE, Maia LC. Stability of the Bond between Two Resin Cements and an Yttria-stabilized Zirconia Ceramic after Six Months of Aging in Water. J Prosthet Dent. 2014 Sep;112(3):568-75.
3. Yun J-Y, Ha S-R, Lee J-B, Kim S-H. Effect of Sandblasting and Various Metal Primers on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Y-TZP Ceramic. Dent Mater. 2010 Jul;26(7):650-8.
4. Cheung GCK, Botelho MG, Matinlinna JP. Effect of Surface Treatments of Zirconia Ceramics on the Bond Strength to Resin Cement. J Adhes Dent. 2014;16:49-56.
5. Passos SP, May LG, Barca DC, Özcan M, Bottino MA, Valandro LF. Adhesive Quality of Self-adhesive and Conventional Adhesive Resin Cement to Y-TZP Ceramic Before and After Long-term Storage and Thermal Cycling. Oper Dent. 2010 Nov;35:689-96.
6. Inokoshi M, VanMeerbeek B. Adhesively Luted Zirconia Restorations: Why and How? J Adhes Dent. 2014;16:294.
7. Örtorp A, Kihl ML, Carlsson GE. A 5-year Retrospective Study of Survival of Zirconia Single Crowns fitted in a Private Clinical Setting. J Dent. 2012 Jun;40(6):527-30.
8. Al-Amleh B, Lyons K, Swain M. Clinical Trials in Zirconia: A Systematic Review. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37(8):641-52.
9. Perdigão J, Fernandes SD, Pinto AM, Oliveira FA. Effect of Artificial Aging and Surface Treatment on Bond Strengths to Dental Zirconia. Oper Dent. 2013;38(2):168-76.
10. Zhang Y, Lawn BR, Malament KA, Van Thompson P, Recon ED. Damage Accumulation and Fatigue Life of Particle-abraded Ceramics. Int J Prosthodont. 2006;19(5):442-8.
11. Amaral M, Cesar PF, Bottino MA, Lohbauer U, Valandro LF. Fatigue Behavior of Y-TZP Ceramic after Surface Treatments. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2016 Apr;57:149-56.
12. Anami LC, Lima JMC, Valandro LF, Kleverlaan CJ, Feilzer AJ, Bottino MA. Fatigue Resistance of Y-TZP/Porcelain Crowns is not influenced by the Conditioning of the Intaglio Surface. Oper Dent. 2016;41(1):E1-12.
13. Campos F, Valandro LF, Feitosa SA, Kleverlaan CJ, Feilzer AJ, de Jager N, et al. Adhesive Cementation Promotes Higher Fatigue Resistance to Zirconia Crowns. Oper Dent. 2017;42(2):215-24.
14. Scherrer SS, Cattani-Lorente M, Vittecoq E, de Mestral F, Griggs JA, Wiskott HW. Fatigue Behavior in Water of Y-TZP Zirconia Ceramics after Abrasion with 30 µm Silica-coated Alumina Particles. Dent Mater. 2011 Feb;27(2):e28-42.
15. Pereira GKR, Venturini AB, Silvestri T, Dapieve KS, Montagner AF, Soares FZM, et al. Low-temperature Degradation of Y-TZP Ceramics: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2016 Mar;55:151-63.
16. Cura C, Özcan M, Isik G, Saracoglu A. Comparison of Alternative Adhesive Cementation Concepts for Zirconia Ceramic: Glaze Layer vs Zirconia Primer. J Adhes Dent. 2012;14(1):75-82.
17. Aboushelib, MN. Fusion Sputtering for Bonding to Zirconia-based Materials. J Adhes Dent. 2012;14(4):323-8.
18. Druck CC, Pozzobon JL, Callegari GL, Dorneles LS, Valandro LF. Adhesion to Y-TZP Ceramic: Study of Silica Nanofilm Coating on the Surface of Y-TZP. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomat. 2015;103(1):143-150.
19. Tedesco TK, Montagner AF, Skupien JA, Soares FZ, Susin AH, Rocha RO. Starch Tubing: An Alternative Method to build up Microshear Bond Test Specimens. J Adhes Dent. 2013;15(4):311-5.
20. Garvie RC, Nicholson PS. Phase Analysis in Zirconia Systems. J Am Ceram Soc. 1972 Jun;55(6):303-5.
21. Toraya H, Yoshimura M, Somiya S. Calibration Curve for Quantitative Analysis of the Monoclinic-Tetragonal ZrO2 System by X-ray Diffraction. J Am Ceram Soc. 1984 Jun;67(6):C119-21.
22. Inokoshi M, De Munck J, Minakuchi S, Van Meerbeek B. Meta-analysis of Bonding Effectiveness to Zirconia Ceramics. J Dent Res. 2014 Feb;93(4):329-34.
23. Subaşi MG, Demir N, Kara Ö, Ozturk AN, Özel F. Mechanical Properties of Zirconia after different Surface Treatments and Repeated Firings. J Adv Prosthodont. 2014 Dec;6(6):462-7.
24. Karakoca S, Yilmaz H. Influence of Surface Treatments on Surface Roughness, Phase Transformation, and Biaxial Flexural Strength of Y-TZP Ceramics. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009 Nov;91B(2):930-7.
25. Oyagüe RC, Monticelli F, Toledano M, Osorio E, Ferrari M, Osorio R. Effect of Water Aging on Microtensile Bond Strength of Dual-cured Resin Cements to Pre-treated Sintered Zirconium-oxide Ceramics. Dent Mater. 2009 March;25(3):392-9.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- All content of the journal, except where identified, is licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-type BY. The online journal is free and open access.