The effect of surface treatment and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneering material cemented with different luting cements

  • Fawaz Alqahtani
  • Mohammed Alkhurays


Aim: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of different surface treatment and thermocycling on the shear bond strength (SBS) of different dual-/light-cure cements bonding porcelain laminate veneers (PLV). Methods: One hundred and twenty A2 shade lithium disilicate discs were divided into three groups based on the resin cement used and on the pretreatment received and then divided into two subgroups: thermocycling and control. The surface treatment were either micro-etched with aluminium trioxide and 10% hydrofluoric acid or etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid only before cementation. Three dual-cure (Variolink Esthetic (I), RelyX Ultimate (II), and RelyX Unicem (III)) and three light-cure (Variolink Veneer (IV), Variolink Esthetic (V), RelyX Veneer (VI)) resin cements were used for cementation. The SBS of the samples was evaluated and analysed using three -way ANOVA with statistical significant set at α=0.05. Results: For all resin cements tested with different surface treatments, there was a statistically significant difference within resin cements per surface treatment (p<0.05). The shear bond strength in the micro-etch group was significant higher than the acid-etch group (p<0.05) There was statistically significant interaction observed between the surface treatment and thermocycling (p<0.05) as well as the cement and thermocycling(p<0.05). It was observed that the reduction in shear bond strength after thermocycling was more pronounced in the acid etch subgroup as compared to the microetch subgroup. However, the interaction between the three factors: surface treatments, thermocycling and resin cements did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between and within groups (p=0.087). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it acan be concluded that Dual cure resin cements showed a higher Shear bond strength as compared to light cure resin cements. Thermal cycling significantly decreased the shear bond strength for both ceramic surface treatments. After thermocycling, the specimens with 10% HF surface treatment showed lower shear bond strength values when compared to those treated by sandblasting with Al2O3 particles.


1. Anusavice KJ, Shen C, Rawls HR. Phillips’ science of dental materials. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2013.
2. van Noort R Dental ceramics. In: Introduction to dental materials. Saint Louis: Mosby; 2002. p.201-14.
3. Borges GA, Sophr AM, De Goes MF, Correr Sobrinho L, Chan DC. Effect of etching and airborne
particle abrasion on the microstructure of different dental ceramics. J Prosthet Dent. 2003
4. Hitz T, Stawarczyk B, Fischer J, Hämmerle CH, Sailer I. Are self-adhesive resin cements a valid
alternative to conventional resin cements? A laboratory study of the long-term bond strength. Dent
Mater. 2012 Nov;28(11):1183-90. doi: 10.1016/
5. Rosenstiel SF, Land MF, Crispin BJ. Dental luting agents: a review of the current literature. J Prosthet
Dent. 1998 Sep;80(3):280-301.
6. White SN, Yu Z. Compressive and diametral tensile strengths of current adhesive luting agents.
J Prosthet Dent. 1993 Jun;69(6):568-72.
7. Radovic I, Monticelli F, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M. Self-adhesive resin cements: a literature
review. J Adhes Dent. 2008 Aug;10(4):251-8.
8. Aguiar TR, Di Francescantonio M, Ambrosano GM, Giannini M. Effect of curing mode on bond
strength of self‐adhesive resin luting cements to dentin. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater.
2010 Apr;93(1):122-7. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.31566.
9. Guarda GB, Correr AB, Gonçalves LS, Costa AR, Borges GA, Sinhoreti MA,et al. Effects of surface
treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a
lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Oper Dent. 2013 Mar-Apr;38(2):208-17. doi: 10.2341/11-076-L.
10. Salvio LA, Correr-Sobrinho L, Consani S, Sinhoreti MA, de Goes MF,
Knowles JC. Effect of water storage and surface treatments on
the tensile bond strength of IPS Empress 2ceramic. J Prosthodont. 2007 May-Jun;16(3):192-9.
11. Spohr AM, Correr Sobrinho L, Consani S, Sinhoreti MA, Knowles JC. Influence of surface
conditions and silane agent on the bond of resin to IPS Empress 2 ceramic. Int J Prosthodont.
2003 May-Jun;16(3):277-82.
12. Haselton DR, Diaz-Arnold AM, Dunne JT Jr. Shear bond strengths of 2 intraoral porcelain repair
systems to porcelain or metal substrates. J Prosthet Dent. 2001 Nov;86(5):526-31.
13. Kato H, Matsumura H, Atsuta M. Effect of etching and sandblasting on bondstrength to sintered
porcelain of unfilled resin. J Oral Rehabil. 2000 Feb;27(2):103-10.
14. Sen D, Poyrazoglu E, Tuncelli B, Göller G. Shear bond strength of resin luting cement to
glass-infiltrated porous aluminum oxide cores. J Prosthet Dent. 2000 Feb;83(2):210-5.
15. Roulet JF, Söderholm KJ, Longmate J. Effects of treatment and storage conditions on ceramic/
composite bond strength. J Dent Res. 1995 Jan;74(1):381-7.
16. Kamada K, Yoshida K, Atsuta M. Effect of ceramic surface treatments on the bond of four resin luting
agents to a ceramic material. J Prosthet Dent. 1998 May;79(5):508-13.
17. Chen JH, Matsumura H, Atsuta M. Effect of different etching periods on the bond strength of a
composite resin to a machinable porcelain. J Dent. 1998 Jan;26(1):53-8.
18. Borges GA, Caldas D, Taskonak B, Yan J, Correr Sobrinho L, de Oliveira WJ. Fracture loads of
all-ceramic crowns under wet and dry fatigue conditions. J Prosthodont. 2009 Dec;18(8):649-55.
doi: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2009.00498.x.
19. Berry T, Barghi N, Chung K. Effect of water storage on the silanization in porcelain repair strength.
J Oral Rehabil. 1999 Jun;26(6):459-63.
20. Appeldoorn RE, Wilwerding TM, Barkmeier WW. Bond strength of composite resin to porcelain with
newer generation porcelain repair systems. J Prosthet Dent. 1993 Jul;70(1):6-11.
21. Kumbuloglu O, Lassila LV, User A, Vallittu PK. Bonding of resin composite luting cements to zirconium
oxide by two air-particle abrasion methods. Oper Dent. 2006 Mar-Apr;31(2):248-55.
22. Amaral R, Ozcan M, Valandro LF, Balducci I, Bottino MA. Effect of conditioning methods on the
microtensile bond strength of phosphate monomer-based cement on zirconia ceramic in dry and
aged conditions. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008 Apr;85(1):1-9.
23. Piwowarczyk A, Bender R, Ottl P, Lauer HC. Long-term bond between dual-polymerizing cementing
agents and human hard dental tissue. Dent Mater. 2007 Feb;23(2):211-7.
24. Davidson CL, Abdalla AI, De Gee AJ. An investigation into the quality of dentine bonding systems for
accomplishing a durable bond. J Oral Rehabil. 1993 May;20(3):291-300.
25. Titley K, Caldwell R, Kulkarni G. Factors that affect the shear bond strength of multiple component
and single bottle adhesives to dentin. Am J Dent. 2003 Apr;16(2):120-4.
26. Della Bona A, Van Noort R. Shear vs. tensile bond strength of resin composite bonded to ceramic.
J Dent Res. 1995 Sep;74(9):1591-6.
27. Peumans M, Van Meerbeek B, Lambrechts P, Vanherle G. Porcelain veneers: a review of the literature.
J Dent. 2000 Mar;28(3):163-77.
28. Palacios RP, Johnson GH, Phillips KM, Raigrodski AJ. Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns
with three types of cement. J Prosthet Dent. 2006 Aug;96(2):104-14.
29. Johnson GH, Hazelton LR, Bales DJ, Lepe X. The effect of a resin-based sealer on crown retention for
three types of cement. J Prosthet Dent. 2004 May;91(5):428-35.
30. Ernst CP, Cohnen U, Stender E, Willershausen B. In vitro retentive strength of zirconium oxide ceramic
crowns using different luting agents. J Prosthet Dent. 2005 Jun;93(6):551-8.
31. Karimipour-Saryazdi M, Sadid-Zadeh R, Givan D, Burgess JO, Ramp LC, Liu PR. Influence
of surface treatment of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxides and cement type
on crown retention after artificial aging. J Prosthet Dent. 2014 May;111(5):395-403.
doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2013.09.034.
32. Seto KB, McLaren EA, Caputo AA, White SN. Fatigue behavior of the resinous cement to zirconia
bond. J Prosthet Dent. 2014 May;111(5):395-403. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2013.09.034.
33. Shahin R, Kern M. Effect of air-abrasion on the retention of zirconia ceramic crowns luted
with different cements before and after artificial aging. Dent Mater. 2010 Sep;26(9):922-8.
doi: 10.1016/
34. Blatz MB, Sadan A, Kern M. Resin-ceramic bonding: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent. 2003
35. White SN, Zhao XY, Zhaokun Y, Li ZC. Cyclic mechanical fatigue of a feldspathic dental porcelain. Int
J Prosthodont. 1995 Sep-Oct;8(5):413-20.
36. Subramanian D, Sivagami G, Sendhilnathan D, Rajmohan C. Effect of thermocycling on
the flexural strength of porcelain laminate veneers. J Conserv Dent. 2008 Oct;11(4):144-9.
doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.48835.
37. Stacey GD. A shear stress analysis of the bonding of porcelain veneers to enamel. J Prosthet Dent.
1993 Nov;70(5):395-402.
38. Ferracane JL. Elution of leachable components from composites. J Oral Rehabil. 1994
39. Soles CL, Yee AF. A discussion of the molecular mechanisms of moisture transport in epoxy resins.
J Polym Sci B Polym Phys. 2000 Mar;38(5):792-802.
40. Beatty MW, Swartz ML, Moore BK, Phillips RW, Roberts TA. Effect of crosslinking agent content,
monomer functionality, and repeat unit chemistry on properties of unfilled resins. J Biomed Mater
Res. 1993 Mar;27(3):403-13.
41. Venz S, Dickens B. NIR-spectroscopic investigation of water sorption characteristics of dental resins
and composites. J Biomed Mater Res. 1991 Oct;25(10):1231-48.
How to Cite
ALQAHTANI, Fawaz; ALKHURAYS, Mohammed. The effect of surface treatment and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneering material cemented with different luting cements. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, [S.l.], v. 18, p. e191581, july 2019. ISSN 1677-3225. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 july 2019. doi:
Original Research