Salivary Interleukin 6 and Sialic acid in Periodontitis
Aim: Periodontitis is the major multi –factorial chronic infectious oral diseases in dentate people. Sialic acid regulates innate immunity response that release cytokines. The study aimed to evaluate interleukin-6 levels in periodontittsis and its relation to clinical features, total sialic acid and its fraction and total proteins to clarify its role. Material and Methods: The study was observational case-control study, carried out in periodontology clinic, College of Dentistry / Erbil /Iraq. A total of 60 participants were recruited in this study, They were divided into three groups: control group represent systemically and periodontally healthy subjects, clinically, diagnosed dentate periodontitis group and partial edentulous group.The data was collected through interview questionnaire, clinical periodontal examination, and biochemical tests for salivary; IL-6.total sialic acid and its fraction, and salivary total proteins Statistical analysis was done by statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant (P≤ 0.01) highest value of total sialic acid in periodontitis. While the highest value of IL-6 was in partial edentulous group.
Old ages increased salivary IL-6 significantly. In periodontitis there was significantly association of IL-6 with probe pocket depth, mobility scores of teeth, protein bonund sialic acid and significant negative association with lipid bound sialic acid in the precipitate. While in partial edentulous IL-6 associated significantly with gingival index and free sialic acid in precipitate and negatively with probe pocket depth. Conclusions: Salivary
sialic acid and IL-6 are periodontitis biomarkers in dentate. Pleiotropic role of IL-6 can be diagnosed by sialic acid levels. It depends on age, (which affects number of teeth and salivary flow rate), and treatment conditions.
2. Murata T, Mizaki H, Senpuku H, Hanada N. Periodontitis and Serum Interleukin-6 in The Elderly. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr;54(2):69-71.
3. Gemmell E, Seymour GJ. Immunoregulatory control of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2004;35:21-41.
4. Goutoudi P, Diza E, Arvanitidou M. Effect of periodontal therapy on crevicular fluid interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in chronic periodontitis. Int J Dent. 2012;2012:362905. doi: 10.1155/2012/362905.
5. Balto K, Sasaki H, Stashenko P. Interleukin-6 deficiency increases inflammatory bone destruction. Infect Immun. 2001 Feb;69(2):744-50.
6. Nibali L, Fedele S, D’Aiuto F, Donos N. Interleukin-6 in oral diseases: a review. Oral Dis. 2012 Apr;18(3):236-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2011.01867.x.
7. Jawzali JI. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers. Saudi Dent J. 2016 Jul;28(3):124-35. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2016.05.002.
8. Robertst IS. Bacterial polysaccharides in sickness and in health. Microbiology. 1995 Sep;141(Pt 9):2023-31.
9. Shahid SM, Mahboob T. Correlation Between Frequent risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy and Serum Sialic Acid. Asian J Biochem. 2006;1:244-50. doi: 10.3923/ajb.2006.244.250.
10. Browning LM, Jebb SA, Mishra GD, Cooke JH, O’Connell MA, Crook MA, et al. Elevated sialic acid, but not CRP, predicts features of the metabolic syndrome independently of BMI in women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Aug;28(8):1004-10.
11. Yaghobee S, Khorsand A, Rasouli Ghohroudi AA, Sanjari K, Kadkhodazadeh M. Assessment of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 in the crevicular fluid around healthy implants, implants with periimplantitis, and healthy teeth: a cross-sectional study. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014 Oct;40(5):220-4. doi: 10.5125/jkaoms.2014.40.5.220.
12. Shaker ZF, Hashem BH. Study the role of proinflammatory and anti- inflammatory cytokines in Iraqi chronic periodontitis patients. J Bagh Col Dent. 2012;24(1):164-9.
13. American Academy of Periodontology Task Force Report on the Update to the 1999 Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2015 Jul;86(7):835-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.157001.
14. Saxer UP, Mühlemann HR. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases. In periodontology: Muelle HP. (2004) editor: Thiem, Stuttgart: New York:; 2004. p.38-46.
15. Carranza FA, Takei HH. Clinical diagnosis. In: Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology. Michael G. Newman, Henry H. Takei, Fermin A. Carranza, Perry R. Klokkevold (editor). Saunders Elsevier, 2006. Middle East and African Edition. P. 540-560
16. Löe H. The gingival index, the plaque index and the retention index systems. J Periodontol. 1967 Nov- Dec;38(6):Suppl:610-6.
17. Dowen B, Heintze U. Salivary secretion rate, Buffer capacity, and pH. In: Jorma T, editor. Human Saliva: Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1989. Vol. 1; p. 25-73.
18. Skoza L, Mohos S. Stable Thiobarbituric Acid Chromophor with Dimethyl Sulphoxide. Biochem J. 1976 Dec 1;159 (3):457-62.
19. Masami S. Method of measuring lipid bound sialic acid. United states Patent 4837144; 6/6/1989 20. Shetty PK, Pattabiraman TN. Salivary Glycoproteins As Indicators of Oral Diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2004 Jan;19(1):97-101. doi: 10.1007/BF02872400.
21. Davidson College. Protein determination – Lowry Procedure. Biology 371. Davidson NC 28036; 2000. 22. Shinohara M, Ohura k, Ogata K, Inoue H, Miyata T, Yoshioka M. Relationship between the Sialic Acid Concentration in the Serum and Whole saliva in Rats with Naturally Occuring Gingivitis. J Jpn J Pharmacol. 1994 Jan;64(1):61-3.
23. Elbersol JL, Cappelli D. Acute phase reactants in infection and inflammatory diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2000 Jun;23:19-49.
24. Miller CS, King CP Jr, Langub MC, Kryscio RJ, Thomas MV. Salivary biomarkers of existing periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Mar;137(3):322-9.
25. Soell M, Holveck F, Schöller M, Wachsmann RD, Klein JP. Binding of Streptococcus mutans SR protein to human monocytes: production of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6. Infect Immun. 1994 May;62(5):1805-12.
26. Stuart AD, Brown TD. Alpha2,6-linked sialic acid acts as a receptor for Feline calicivirus. J Gen Virol. 2007 Jan;88(Pt 1):177-86.
27. Rhodus NL, Ho V, Miller CS, Myers S, Ondrey F. NF-kappaB dependent cytokine levels in saliva of patients with oral preneoplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Detect Prev. 2005;29(1):42-5.
28. Persson RE, Persson GR. The elderly at risk for periodontitis and systemic diseases. Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Apr;49(2):279-92.
29. Al-Azzawi SI, Alwan AM, Salal RH. Influence of age and gender on salivary flow rate in completely edentulous patients. MDJ.2013;10(1):64-8.
30. Alwan AH, Taher MG, Getta HA, Hussain AA. Estimation of the level of Salivary Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and its’ correlation with the clinical parameters in patients with periodontal diseases. IOSR J Dent Med Sci.2015 Sep;14(9):82-8.
31. Slade GD, Offenbacher S, Beck JD, Heiss G, Pankow JS. Acute- phase inflammatory Response to Periodontal Disease in the US Population. J Dent Res. 2000 Jan;79(1):49-57.
32. Goutoudi P, Diza E, Arvanitidou M: Effect of periodontal therapy on crevicular fluid interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 levels in chronic periodontitis. J Dent. 2004;32(7):511-20.
33. Ng PY1, Donley M, Hausmann E, Hutson AD, Rossomando EF, Scannapieco FA. Candidate Salivary biomarkers associated with alveolar boine loss. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007 Mar;49(2):252-60.
34. Murray PA, Levine MJ, Reddy MS, Tabak LA, Bergey EJ. Preparation of a sialic Acid-Binding Protein from Streptococcus mitis KS32AR. Infect Immun. 1986 Aug;53(2):359-65.
35. Gani DK, Lashmi D, Kirshman R, Eramad R. Evolution of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic periodontitis. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2009 May-Aug;13(2):69-74.
36. Geivelis M, Turner DW, Pederson ED, Lamberts BL. Measurements of interleukin-6 in gingival crevicular fluid from adults with destructive periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 1993 Oct;64(10):980-3.
37. Murata T, Miyazaki H, Senpuku H, Hanada N. Periodontitis and serum interleukin-6 levels in the elderly. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr;54(2):69-71.
38. Lin SJ1, Chen YL, Kuo MY, Li CL, Lu HK. Measurement of gp130 cytokines oncostatin M and IL-6 in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis. Cytokine. 2005 May 21;30(4):160-7.
39. Zhang YF, Zheng J, Zheng L, Zhou ZR. Influence of centrifugation treatment on the lubricating properties of human whole saliva. Biosurface Biotribol. 2016;2(3):95-101. doi: 10.1016/j.bsbt.2016.09.001.
40. Gibbons RJ, Etherden I, Moreno EC. Association of neuraminidase-sensitive receptors and putative hydrophobic interactions with high-affinity binding sites for Streptococcus sanguis C5 in salivary pellicles. Infect Immun. 1983 Dec;42(3):1006-12.
41. Marcotte H, Lavoie MC. Oral microbial ecology and the role of salivary immunoglobulin A. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998 Mar;62(1):71-109.
42. McBride BC, Gisslow MT. Role of sialic acid in saliva-induced aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis. Infect Immun. 1977 Oct;18(1):35-40.
43. Groux-Degroote S, Krzewinski-Recchi MA, Cazet A, Vincent A, Lehoux S, Lafitte JJ, et al. IL-6 and IL-8 increase the expression of glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases involved in the biosynthesis of sialylated and/or sulfated Lewisx epitopes in the human bronchial mucosa. Biochem J. 2008 Feb 15;410(1):213-23.
44. Chaudhury NMA, Proctor GB, Karlsson NG, Carpenter GH, Flowers SA. Reduced Mucin-7 (Muc7) Sialylation and Altered Saliva Rheology in Sjögren’s Syndrome Associated Oral Dryness. Mol Cel Proteomics. 2016;15(3):1048-59.
45. Tilg H, Dinarello CA, Mier JW. IL-6 and APPs: anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators. Immunol Today. 1997 Sep;18(9):428-32.
46. Schindler R, Mancilla J, Endres S, Ghorbani R, Clark SC, Dinarello CA. Correlations and Interactions in the Production of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in Human Blood Mononuclear Cells: IL-6 Suppresses IL-1 and TNF. Blood. 1990 Jan 1;75(1):40-7.
- All content of the journal, except where identified, is licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-type BY. The online journal is free and open access.