Craniometric variation among Brazilian and Scottish populations: a physical anthropology approach.
Aim: The present investigation intended to compare the craniometric variations of two samples of different nationalities (Brazilian and Scottish). Materials and methods: The Brazilian sample consisted of 100 modern complete skulls, including 53 female skulls and 47 male skulls, and the Scottish sample consisted of 100 historical skulls (61 males, 39 females) and 36 mandibles (24 males, 12 females). The cranial measurement protocol was composed of 40 measurements, 11 bilateral and 29 unilateral, and the measurement protocol of the mandible was composed of 15 measurements, with six that were bilateral and nine that were unique. The comparative analysis of the metric variability between the two samples was performed using the means and
medians analysis, the t-test, the Wilcoxon test, and the coefficient of variance, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The results showed that, among the 72 analysed variables, 44 measurements (61.11%) presented statistical differences between the samples. The Scottish skull tends to have a cranial length (GOL diff=5.53),
breadth (XCB diff=3.78) and height (NPH diff=5.33) greater than the Brazilian skulls, and the Scottish mandibles tend to show a higher mandibular ramus height (MRH diff=9.25), a higher mandibular body height (HMB diff=6.37) and a larger bigonial breadth (BGB diff=5.29) than the Brazilians. The discriminant analysis of the 51 cranial measurements and 21 mandibular measurements showed a variation of the percentage of accuracy between 46.3- 83.8%. Conclusion: The metric analysis demonstrated that there is variability between the two samples studied (61.11%), but a concrete cause cannot be determined considering the multifactorial aspects of the variations of form and size.
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