Effects of alcohol intake in periodontitis progression in female rats: a histometric study

  • Daniela Martins de Souza
  • Lucilene Hernandes Ricardo
  • Rosilene Fernandes da Rocha


Aim: To evaluate histometrically the effect of low and high caloric value of ethanol on ligature induced bone loss in female rats. Methods: Sixty female rats were divided into five groups of 12 animals each: Normal Control (water), Test A (low ethanol), Control A (low iso), Test B (high ethanol) and Control B (high iso). Control Groups A and B received diets with the same amount of calories consumed by Test Groups A and B, respectively, with ethanol replaced by isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate. Four weeks prior to the end of the experimental period, half of the rats in each group were randomly assigned to receive a ligature on mandibular molar, whereas the other half of group was left unligated. At 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were processed to obtain decalcified sections. The area of periodontal ligament and/or bone loss in the furcation region of the first molars was histometrically measured in five sections per specimen (mm²). Results: Ethanol intake did not have effect on the alveolar bone loss in unligated teeth (p>0.05). However, in ligature-induced periodontitis, high value of calories associated with ethanol feeding enhanced the area of bone loss (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that a low-ethanol diet did not affect the periodontium, while a high-ethanol diet may aggravate the progression of periodontitis, as demonstrated by the increased furcation region bone destruction in periodontal disease.


1. Kinane DF. Causation and pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2001; 25: 8-20.
2. Loe H, Anerud A, Boysen H, Morrison E. Natural history of periodontal disease in man. Rapid, moderate and no loss of attachment in Sri Lankan laborers 14 to 46 years of age. J Clin Periodontol. 1986; 13: 431-40.
3. Genco RJ. Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 1996; 64: 1041-9.
4. Tezal M, Grossi SG, Ho AW, Genco RJ. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2001; 72: 183-9.
5. Tezal M, Grossi SG, Ho AW, Genco RJ. Alcohol consumption and periodontal disease. The third national health and nutrition examination survey. J Clin Periodontol. 2004; 31: 484-8.
6. Jansson L. Association between alcohol consumption and dental health. J Clin Periodontol. 2008; 35: 379-84.
7. Kongstad J, Hvidtfeldt UA, Gronbaek M, Jontell M, Stoltze K, Holmstrup P. Amount and type of alcohol and periodontitis in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. J Clin Periodontol 2008; 35: 1032-9.
8. Weinberg MA, Bral M. Laboratory animal models in periodontology. J Clin Periodontol. 1999; 26: 335-40.
9. Amadei SU, Souza DM, Brandão AAH, Rocha RF. Influence of different durations of estrogen deficiency on alveolar bone loss in rats. Braz Oral Res. 2011; 25: 538-43.
10. Milhan NVM, Forte LFBP, Vasconcelos LMR, Balducci I, Carvalho YR. Influence of ovariectomy combined with lack of masticatory force in the evolution of periodontal disease. Braz J Oral Sci. 2014; 13: 47-52.
11. de Souza DM, Ricardo LH, Prado Mde A, Prado Fde A, Rocha RF. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontal bone support in experimental periodontitis in rats. J Appl Oral Sci. 2006; 14: 443-7.
12. Souza DM, Ricardo LH, Kantoski KZ, Rocha RF. Influence of alcohol consumption on the alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Braz Oral Res. 2009; 23: 326-32.
13. Souza DM, Rocha RF. Low caloric value of ethanol itself increases alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in male rats. Braz Oral Res. 2009; 23: 460-6.
14. Dantas AM, Mohn CE, Burdet B, Zorrilla Zubilete M, Mandalunis PM, Elverdin JC, et al. Ethanol consumption enhances periodontal inflammatory markers in rats. Arch Oral Biol. 2012; 57: 1211-7.
15. Irie K, Tomofuji T, Tamaki N, Sanbe T, Eruni D, Azuma T, et al. Effects of ethanol consumption on periodontal inflammation in rats. J Dent Res. 2008; 87: 456-60.
16. Bastos MF, Gaag GLD, Romero JR, Gabrili JJM, Marques MR, Duarte PM. Effects of Cachaça, a typical Brazilian alcoholic beverage, on alveolar bone loss and density: A study in peripubertal rats. Arch Oral Biol. 2014; 59: 82-91.
17. Nociti FH Jr, Nogueira-Filho GR, Primo MT, Machado MA, Tramontina VA, Barros SP, et al. The influence of nicotine on the bone loss rate in ligature-induced periodontitis. A histometric study in rats. J Periodontol. 2000; 71: 1460-4.
18. Vasconcelos DFP, da Silva MAD, Marques MR, Gibilini C, Vasconcelos ACCG, Barros SP. Effects of simultaneous nicotine and alcohol use in periodontitis progression in rats: A histomorphometric study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2013; 5: e95–e99.
19. Amaral CD, Luiz RR, Leão A. The relationship between alcohol dependence and periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2008; 79: 993-8.
20. Messingham KAN, Faunce DE, Kovacs EJ. Alcohol, injury, and cellular immunity. Alcohol. 2002; 28: 137-49.
21. Lieber CS. Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease. Alcohol Res Health. 2003; 27: 220-31.
22. Hogan HA, Argueta F, Moe L, Nguyen LP, Sampson HW. Adult-onset alcohol consumption induces osteopenia in female rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001; 25: 746-54.
23. Klein R.F. Alcohol-induced bone disease: impact of ethanol on osteoblast proliferation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997; 21: 392-9.
24. Gonzalez-Calvin JL, Garcia-Sanches A, Bellot V, Muñoz-Torres M, Raia- Alvares E, Salvatierra-Rios D. Mineral metabolism, osteoblastic function and bone mass in chronic alcoholism. Alcohol Alcohol. 1993; 28: 571-9.
25. Lieber CS. Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease. Alcohol Res Health. 2003; 27: 220-31.
26. Hefferan TE, Kennedy AM, Evans GL, Turner RT. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003; 27: 111-7.
How to Cite
DE SOUZA, Daniela Martins; RICARDO, Lucilene Hernandes; DA ROCHA, Rosilene Fernandes. Effects of alcohol intake in periodontitis progression in female rats: a histometric study. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, [S.l.], p. 229-234, dec. 2016. ISSN 1677-3225. Available at: <https://www.fop.unicamp.br/bjos/index.php/bjos/article/view/414>. Date accessed: 17 july 2019.
Original Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)