Whitening mouthwash containing hydrogen peroxide decreases enamel microhardness in vitro
Aim: To assess the effect of a mouthwash containing hydrogen peroxide (HP) on Knoop microhardness (KMH) of bovine enamel. Methods: Fifty-one enamel slabs were polished and divided into groups (n=17), according to the product used during 28 days: HP – mouthwash containing 1,5% of HP (4 min, once/day); CP - 10% carbamide peroxide gel (2 hours/day); AS - no treatment (kept in artificial saliva (AS). Each fragment was submitted to KMH test (three indentations/fragment, with a 50 g load for 5 sec) four times: before (baseline); during (14 and 28 days) and after (7 days immerged in AS) the bleaching treatment. The data were submitted to repeated-measures two-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Results: There was no effect of the interaction between the time and treatment factors (p=0.327). No significant effect was observed from the time factor (p = 0.054). The factor treatment showed significant effect (p =0.002). Regardless of time, the KMH of the enamel submitted to HP was lower than the value observed with the use of CP, which did not differ significantly from the control group (AS). Conclusion: Although there was a trend of decreasing enamel microhardness over time, only the mouthwash containing hydrogen peroxide had a significant effect.
2. Nathoo AS. The chemistry and mechanisms of extrinsic and intrinsic discoloration. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997 Apr;128 Suppl:6S-10S.
3. Price RB, Loney RW, Doyle MG, Moulding MB. An evaluation of a technique to remove stains from teeth using microabrasion. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Aug;134(8):1066-71.
4. Watts A, Addy M. Tooth discolouration and staining: a review of the literature. Br Dent J. 2001 Mar 24;190(6):309-16.
5. Sundfeld RH, Croll TP, Briso AL, Alexandre RS, Sundfeld Neto D. Considerations about enamel microabrasion after 18 years. Am J Dent. 2007 Apr;20(2):67-72.
6. Sheoran N, Garg S, Damle SG, Dhindsa A, Opal S, Gupta S. Esthetic management of developmental enamel opacities in young permanent maxillary incisors with two microabrasion techniques - a split mouth study. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):345-52. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12096.
7. Parreiras SO, Vianna P, Kossatz S, Loguercio AD, Reis A. Effects of light activated in-o ce bleaching on permeability, microhardness, and mineral content of enamel. Oper Dent. 2014 Sep-Oct;39(5):E225-30. doi: 10.2341/13-031-L.
8. Haywood VB. History, safety, and effectiveness of current bleaching techniques and applications of the nightguard vital bleaching technique. Quintessence Int. 1992 Jul;23(7):471-88.
9. Eimar H, Siciliano R, Abdallah MN, Nader SA, Amin WM, Martinez PP, et al. Hydrogen peroxide whitens teeth by oxidizing the organic structure. J Dent. 2012 Dec;40 Suppl 2:e25-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.08.008.
10. Cardoso PC, Reis A, Loguercio A, Vieira LC, Baratieri LN. Clinical effectiveness and tooth sensitivity associated with different bleaching times for a 10 percent carbamide peroxide gel. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010 Oct;141(10):1213-20.
11. Moran JM. Chemical plaque control-prevention for the masses. Periodontol 2000. 1997 Oct;15:109-17.
12. Jaime IM, França FM, Basting RT, Turssi CP, Amaral FL. E cacy of hydrogen-peroxide-based mouthwash in altering enamel color. Am J Dent. 2014 Feb;27(1):47-50.
13. Borges BC, Borges JS, de Melo CD, Pinheiro IV, Santos AJ, Braz R et al. E cacy of a novel at-home bleaching technique with carbamide peroxides modi ed by CPP-ACP and its effect on the microhardness of bleached enamel. Oper Dent. 2011 Sep-Oct;36(5):521-8. doi: 10.2341/11-013-L.
14. Majeed A, Grobler SR, Moola MH, Oberholzer TG. Effect of four over-the-counter tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness. SADJ. 2011 Oct;66(9):412-5.
15. Miranda Dde A, Bertoldo CE, Aguiar FH, Lima DA, Lovadino JR. Effects of mouthwashes on Knoop hardness and surface roughness of dental composites after different immersion times. Braz Oral Res. 2011 Mar-Apr;25(2):168-73..
16. Lima JP, Melo MA, Passos VF, Braga CL, Rodrigues LK, Santiago SL. Dentin erosion by whitening mouthwash associated to toothbrushing abrasion: a focus variation 3D scanning microscopy study. Microsc Res Tech. 2013 Sep;76(9):904-8. doi: 10.1002/jemt.22246.
17. Potgieter E, Osman Y, Grobler SR. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness. SADJ. 2014 May;69(4):152, 154-6.
18. Cavalli V, Rodrigues LK, Paes-Leme AF, Brancalion ML, Arruda MA, Berger SB et al. Effects of bleaching agents containing uoride and calcium on human enamel. Quintessence Int. 2010 Sep;41(8):e157-65.
19. Attin T, Schmidlin PR, Wegehaupt F, Wiegand A. In uence of study design on the impact of bleaching agents on dental enamel microhardness: a review. Dent Mater. 2009 Feb;25(2):143-57. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2008.05.010.
20. Maia E, Baratieri LN, Caldeira de Andrada MA, Monteiro S Jr, Vieira LC. The in uence of two home-applied bleaching agents on enamel microhardness: an in situ study. J Dent. 2008 Jan;36(1):2-7.
21. Abouassi T, Wolkewitz M, Hahn P. Effect of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide on enamel surface: an in vitro study. Clin Oral Investig. 2011 Oct;15(5):673-80. doi: 10.1007/s00784-010-0439-1.
22. Amaral FL, Sasaki RT, da Silva TC, França FM, Flório FM, Basting RT. The effects of home-use and in-o ce bleaching treatments on calcium and phosphorus concentrations in tooth enamel: an in vivo study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2012 Jun;143(6):580-6.
23. Freitas PM, Turssi CP, Hara AT, Serra MC. Dentin microhardness during and after whitening treatments. Quintessence Int. 2004 May;35(5):411-7.
24. Araujo Fde O, Baratieri LN, Araújo E. In situ study of in-o ce bleaching procedures using light sources on human enamel microhardness. Oper Dent. 2010 Mar-Apr;35(2):139-46. doi: 10.2341/08-033-C.
25. Oliveira J, Sarlo RS, Bresciani E, Caneppele T. Whitening E cacy of Whitening Mouth Rinses Used Alone or in Conjunction With Carbamide Peroxide Home Whitening. Oper Dent. 2017 May/Jun;42(3):319-326. doi: 10.2341/15-361-L.
26. Carlin V, Matsumoto MA, Saraiva PP, Artioli A, Oshima CT, Ribeiro DA. Cytogenetic damage induced by mouthrinses formulations in vivo and in vitro. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Jun;16(3):813-20.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- All content of the journal, except where identified, is licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-type BY. The online journal is free and open access.